The birth of Poviglio is linked to a Roman legend according to which the founders were two PUPILII, two orphans, represented in the municipal coat of arms by two putti, hence the name of the city.
The area was home to settlements since the Bronze Age, so much so that 10 archaeological sites have been found that have brought to light some terramaric settlements, including the Terramara di Santa Rosa. The Terramara of Santa Rosa, which covers 7 hectares, is a typical example of the Po Valley settlements of the Bronze Age between the XV and the XII century BC. There are 4,000 square meters of ancient surface brought to light, making the S. Rosa excavation the largest in Europe and one of the largest in the world both by extension and by the type of research conducted. The "Santa Rosa" Terramara museum houses the materials coming from the same: ceramics, jewelry and utensils in bone and bronze, jewels in glass paste, and the remains of a Roman villa.